Military Dictionary – Letter E

Military Dictionary Letter EHere are the DOD Dictionary terms beginning with the letter E and organized alphabetically. Browse terms from the official DOD Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms that start with E and view definitions. Read on for military definitions that begin with E such as electromagnetic jamming, electronic reconnaissance, exfiltration, explosive ordnance and more.

Military Dictionary A to Z


See also Official DOD Shortened Word Forms.


earliest arrival date — A day, relative to C-day, that is specified as the earliest date when a unit, resupply shipment, or replacement personnel can be accepted at a port of debarkation during a deployment. Also called EAD. See also latest arrival date.

early warning — Early notification of the launch or approach of unknown weapons or weapons carriers. Also called EW.

economy of force — The judicious employment and distribution of forces so as to expend the minimum essential combat power on secondary efforts to allocate the maximum possible combat power on primary efforts.

E-day — The day landing force personnel, supplies, and equipment begin to embark aboard amphibious warfare or commercial ships.

effect — 1. The physical or behavioral state of a system that results from an action, a set of actions, or another effect. 2. The result, outcome, or consequence of an action. 3. A change to a condition, behavior, or degree of freedom.

effective United States-controlled ships — United States-owned foreign flag ships that can be tasked by the Maritime Administration to support Department of Defense requirements when necessary. Also called EUSCS.

electro-explosive device — An explosive or pyrotechnic component that initiates an explosive, burning, electrical, or mechanical train and is activated by the application of electrical energy. Also called EED.

electromagnetic battle management — The dynamic monitoring, assessing, planning, and directing of joint electromagnetic spectrum operations in support of the commander’s scheme of maneuver. Also called EMBM.

electromagnetic compatibility The ability of systems, equipment, and devices that use the electromagnetic spectrum to operate in their intended environments without causing or suffering unacceptable or unintentional degradation because of electromagnetic radiation or response. Also called EMC. See also electromagnetic spectrum; electromagnetic spectrum management; electronic warfare.

electromagnetic environment — The resulting product of the power and time distribution, in various frequency ranges, of the radiated or conducted electromagnetic emission levels encountered by a military force, system, or platform when performing its assigned mission in its intended operational environment. Also called EME.

electromagnetic environmental effects — The impact of the electromagnetic environment upon the operational capability of military forces, equipment, systems, and platforms. Also called E3.

electromagnetic hardening — Action taken to protect personnel, facilities, and/or equipment by blanking, filtering, attenuating, grounding, bonding, and/or shielding against undesirable effects of electromagnetic energy. See also electronic warfare.

electromagnetic interference — Any electromagnetic disturbance, induced intentionally or unintentionally, that interrupts, obstructs, or otherwise degrades or limits the effective performance of electronics and electrical equipment. Also called EMI.

electromagnetic intrusion — The intentional insertion of electromagnetic energy into transmission paths in any manner, with the objective of deceiving operators or of causing confusion. See also electronic warfare.

electromagnetic jamming — The deliberate radiation, reradiation, or reflection of electromagnetic energy for the purpose of preventing or reducing an enemy’s effective use of the electromagnetic spectrum, and with the intent of degrading or neutralizing the enemy’s combat capability. See also electromagnetic spectrum; electromagnetic spectrum management; electronic warfare.

electromagnetic operational environment — The background electromagnetic environment and the friendly, neutral, and adversarial electromagnetic order of battle within the electromagnetic area of influence associated with a given operational area. Also called EMOE.

electromagnetic pulse — The electromagnetic radiation from a strong electronic pulse, most commonly caused by a nuclear explosion that may couple with electrical or electronic systems to produce damaging current and voltage surges. Also called EMP. See also electromagnetic radiation.

electromagnetic radiation Radiation made up of oscillating electric and magnetic fields and propagated with the speed of light.

electromagnetic radiation hazards —Transmitter or antenna installation that generates or increases electromagnetic radiation in the vicinity of ordnance, personnel, or fueling operations in excess of established safe levels.

electromagnetic spectrum — The range of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation from zero to infinity. It is divided into 26 alphabetically designated bands. See also electronic warfare.

electromagnetic spectrum control — The coordinated execution of joint electromagnetic spectrum operations with other lethal and nonlethal operations that enable freedom of action in the electromagnetic operational environment. Also called EMSC.

electromagnetic spectrum management — Planning, coordinating, and managing use of the electromagnetic spectrum through operational, engineering, and administrative procedures. See also electromagnetic spectrum.

electromagnetic vulnerability — The characteristics of a system that cause it to suffer a definite degradation (incapability to perform the designated mission) as a result of having been subjected to a certain level of electromagnetic environmental effects. Also called EMV.

electronic attack — Division of electronic warfare involving the use of electromagnetic energy, directed energy, or antiradiation weapons to attack personnel, facilities, or equipment with the intent of degrading, neutralizing, or destroying enemy combat capability and is considered a form of fires. Also called EA. See also electronic protection; electronic warfare; electronic warfare support.

electronic intelligence Technical and geolocation intelligence derived from foreign noncommunications electromagnetic radiations emanating from other than nuclear detonations or radioactive sources. Also called ELINT. See also electronic warfare; foreign instrumentation  signals  intelligence;  intelligence;  signals  intelligence.

electronic masking —The controlled radiation of electromagnetic energy on friendly frequencies in a manner to protect the emissions of friendly communications and electronic systems against enemy electronic warfare support measures/signals intelligence  without  significantly  degrading  the  operation of friendly systems.

electronic probing — Intentional radiation designed to be introduced into the devices or systems of potential enemies for the purpose of learning the functions and operational capabilities of the devices or systems.

electronic protection Division of electronic warfare involving actions taken to protect personnel, facilities, and equipment from any effects of friendly or enemy use of the electromagnetic spectrum that degrade, neutralize, or destroy friendly combat capability. Also called EP. See also electronic attack, electronic warfare; electronic warfare support.

electronic reconnaissance — The detection, location, identification, and evaluation of foreign electromagnetic radiations. See also electromagnetic radiation; reconnaissance.

electronics security — The protection resulting from all measures designed to deny unauthorized persons information of value that might be derived from their interception and study of noncommunications electromagnetic radiations, e.g., radar.

electronic warfare Military action involving the use of electromagnetic and directed energy to control the electromagnetic spectrum or to attack the enemy. Also called EW. See also directed energy; electromagnetic spectrum; electronic attack; electronic protection; electronic warfare support.

electronic warfare frequency deconfliction Actions taken to integrate those frequencies used by electronic warfare systems into the overall frequency deconfliction process. See also electronic warfare.

electronic warfare reprogramming — The deliberate alteration or modification of electronic warfare or target sensing systems, or the tactics and procedures that employ them, in response to validated changes in equipment, tactics, or the electromagnetic environment. See also electronic warfare.

electronic warfare support — Division of electronic warfare involving actions tasked by, or under direct control of, an operational commander to search for, intercept, identify, and locate or localize sources of intentional and unintentional radiated electromagnetic energy for the purpose of immediate threat recognition, targeting, planning and conduct of future operations. Also called ES. See also electronic attack; electronic protection; electronic warfare.

electro-optical-infrared countermeasure — A device or technique employing electro- optical-infrared materials or technology that is intended to impair the effectiveness of enemy activity, particularly with respect to precision guided weapons and sensor systems. Also called EO-IR CM.

element — An organization formed around a specific function within a designated directorate of a headquarters.

elevated causeway system — An elevated causeway pier that provides a means of delivering containers, certain vehicles, and bulk cargo ashore without the lighterage contending with the surf zone. Also called ELCAS. See also causeway.

elicitation — In intelligence usage, the acquisition of information from a person or group in a manner that does not disclose the intent of the interview or conversation.

embarkation — The process of putting personnel and/or vehicles and their associated stores and equipment into ships and/or aircraft.

embarkation and tonnage table — A consolidated table showing personnel and cargo, by troop or naval units, loaded aboard a combat-loaded ship.

embarkation area — An area ashore, including a group of embarkation points, in which final preparations for embarkation are completed and through which assigned personnel and loads for craft and ships are called forward to embark. See also mounting area.

embarkation element — A temporary administrative formation of personnel with supplies and equipment embarking or to be embarked (combat loaded) aboard the ships of one transport element.

embarkation group — A temporary administrative formation of personnel with supplies and equipment embarking or to be embarked (combat loaded) aboard the ships of one transport element group.

embarkation officer An officer on the staff of units of the landing force who advises the commander thereof on matters pertaining to embarkation planning and loading ships. See also combat cargo officer.

embarkation order — An order specifying dates, times, routes, loading diagrams, and methods of  movement  to  shipside  or  aircraft  for  troops  and  their  equipment.

embarkation organization — A temporary administrative formation of personnel with supplies and equipment embarking or to be embarked aboard ships. See also embarkation team.

embarkation phase — In amphibious operations, the phase that encompasses the orderly assembly of personnel and materiel and their subsequent loading aboard ships and/or aircraft in a sequence designed to meet the requirements of the landing force concept of operations ashore.

embarkation plans — The plans prepared by the landing force and appropriate subordinate commanders containing instructions and information concerning the organization for embarkation, assignment to shipping, supplies and equipment to be embarked, location and assignment of embarkation areas, control and communication arrangements, movement schedules and embarkation sequence, and additional pertinent instructions relating to the embarkation of the landing force.

embarkation team — A temporary administrative formation of all personnel with supplies and equipment embarking or to be embarked (combat loaded) aboard one ship. See also embarkation organization.

embarkation unit — A temporary administrative formation of personnel with supplies and equipment embarking or to be embarked (combat loaded) aboard the ships of one transport unit, which is dissolved upon completion of the embarkation.

emergency action committee — An organization established at a foreign service post by the chief of mission or principal officer for the purpose of directing and coordinating the post’s response to contingencies. Also called EAC.

emergency-essential employee — A Department of Defense civilian whose assigned duties and responsibilities must be accomplished following the evacuation of non-essential personnel (including dependents) during a declared emergency or outbreak of war. See also evacuation.

emergency locator beacon — A generic term for all radio beacons used for emergency locating purposes. See also personal locator beacon.

emergency operations center — A temporary or permanent facility where the coordination of information and resources to support domestic incident management activities normally takes place. Also called EOC.

emergency preparedness — Measures taken in advance of an emergency to reduce the loss of life and property and to protect a nation’s institutions from all types of hazards through a comprehensive emergency management program of preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery. Also called EP.

emergency preparedness liaison officer — A senior reserve officer who represents their Service at the appropriate joint field office conducting planning and coordination responsibilities in support of civil authorities. Also called EPLO.

emergency repair The least amount of immediate repair to damaged facilities necessary for the facilities to support the mission. See also facility substitutes.

emergency support functions — Government and certain private-sector capabilities grouped into an organizational structure to provide the support, resources, program implementation, and services that are most likely to be needed to save lives, protect property and the environment, restore essential services and critical infrastructure, and help victims and communities return to normal, when feasible, following domestic incidents. Also called ESFs.

emission control — The selective and controlled use of electromagnetic, acoustic, or other emitters to optimize command and control capabilities while minimizing, for operations security: a. detection by enemy sensors; b. mutual interference among friendly systems; and/or c. enemy interference with the ability to execute a military deception plan. Also called EMCON. See also electronic warfare.

emission security — The component of communications security that results from all measures taken to deny unauthorized persons information of value that might be derived from intercept and analysis of compromising emanations from crypto-equipment and telecommunications systems. See also communications security.

employment — The strategic, operational, or tactical use of forces.

end evening civil twilight — The point in time when the sun has dropped 6 degrees beneath the western horizon, and is the instant at which there is no longer sufficient light to see objects with the unaided eye. Also called EECT.

end item — A final combination of end products, component parts, and/or materials that is ready for its intended use.

end of evening nautical twilight — The point in time when the sun has dropped 12 degrees below the western horizon, and is the instant of last available daylight for the visual control of limited military operations. Also called EENT.

end state — The set of required conditions that defines achievement of the commander’s objectives.

end-to-end — A term that describes joint distribution operations boundaries, which begin at the point of origin and terminate at the geographic combatant commander’s designated point of need within a desired operational area, including the return of forces and materiel.

enduring location — A main operating base, forward operating site, or cooperative security location designated by the Department of Defense for strategic access and use to support United States security interests for the foreseeable future. Also called EL.

engage — 1. In air and missile defense, a fire control order used to direct or authorize units and/or weapon systems to attack a designated target. See also cease engagement; hold fire. 2. To bring the enemy under fire.

engagement — 1. An attack against an air or missile threat. 2. A tactical conflict, usually between opposing lower echelons maneuver forces. See also battle; campaign.

engagement authority — An authority vested with a joint force commander that may be delegated to a subordinate commander, that permits an engagement decision.

engage on remote — Use of nonorganic sensor or ballistic missile defense system track data to launch weapon and complete engagement. Also called EOR.

engineer support plan — An appendix to the logistics annex or separate annex of an operation plan that identifies the minimum essential engineering services and construction requirements required to support the commitment of military forces. Also called ESP. See also operation plan.

en route care — Care provided during transport to optimize patient outcomes. Also called ERC. See also evacuation.

entity — Within the context of targeting, a term used to describe facilities, individuals, virtual (nontangible) things, equipment, or organizations.

environmental baseline survey A multi-disciplinary site survey conducted prior to or in the initial stage of an operational deployment. Also called EBS. See also general engineering.

environmental considerations — The spectrum of environmental media, resources, or programs that may affect the planning and execution of military operations.

equipment In logistics, all nonexpendable items needed to outfit or equip an individual or organization. See also component; supplies.

escapee — Any person who has been physically captured by the enemy and succeeds in getting free.

essential care — Medical treatment provided to manage the casualty throughout the roles of care, which includes all care and treatment to either return the patient to duty (within the theater evacuation policy), or begin initial treatment required for optimization of outcome, and/or stabilization to ensure the patient can tolerate evacuation. See also en route care; first responder; forward resuscitative care; theater.

essential elements of information — The most critical information requirements regarding the adversary and the environment needed by the commander by a particular time to relate with other available information and intelligence in order to assist in reaching a logical decision. Also called EEIs.

essential task — A specified or implied task an organization must perform to accomplish the mission. See also implied task; specified task.

establishing directive An order issued to specify the purpose of the support relationship.

estimate — 1. An analysis of a foreign situation, development, or trend that identifies its major elements, interprets the significance, and appraises the future possibilities and the prospective results of the various actions that might be taken. 2. An appraisal of the capabilities, vulnerabilities, and potential courses of action of a foreign nation or combination of nations in consequence of a specific national plan, policy, decision, or contemplated course of action. 3. An analysis of an actual or contemplated clandestine operation in relation to the situation in which it is or would be conducted to identify and appraise such factors as available as well as needed assets and potential obstacles, accomplishments, and consequences. See also intelligence estimate.

estimative intelligence — Intelligence that identifies, describes, and forecasts adversary capabilities and the implications for  planning  and  executing  military  operations.

evacuation — 1. Removal of a patient by any of a variety of transport means from a theater of military operation, or between health services capabilities, for the purpose of preventing further illness or injury, providing additional care, or providing disposition of patients from the military health care system. 2. The clearance of personnel, animals, or materiel from a given locality. 3. The controlled process of collecting, classifying, and shipping unserviceable or abandoned materiel, United States or foreign, to appropriate reclamation, maintenance, technical intelligence, or disposal facilities. 4. The ordered or authorized departure of noncombatant evacuees from a specific area to another in the same or different countries by Department of State, Department of Defense, or appropriate military commander. See also evacuee; noncombatant evacuation operation.

evacuee — A civilian removed from a place of residence by military direction for reasons of personal security or the requirements of the military situation. See also displaced person; refugee.

evader — Any person isolated in  hostile  or  unfriendly  territory  who  eludes  capture.

evaluation — In intelligence usage, appraisal of an item of information in terms of credibility, reliability, pertinence, and accuracy.

evaluation agent The command or agency designated in the evaluation directive to be responsible for the planning, coordination, and conduct of the required evaluation of a joint  test  publication.  See also joint doctrine; joint test  publication.

evaluation and feedback — In intelligence usage, continuous assessment of intelligence operations throughout the intelligence process to ensure that the commander’s intelligence requirements are being met. See intelligence process.

evasion — The process whereby isolated personnel avoid capture with the goal of successfully returning to areas under friendly control.

evasion aid — In personnel recovery, any piece of information or equipment designed to assist an individual in avoiding capture. See also blood chit; evasion; evasion chart; pointee-talkee; recovery; recovery operations.

evasion chart — A special map or chart designed as an evasion aid. Also called EVC. See also evasion; evasion aid.

evasion plan of action — A course of action, developed prior to executing a combat mission, that is intended to improve a potential isolated person’s chances of successful evasion and recovery by providing the recovery forces with an additional source of information that can increase the predictability of the evader’s action and movement. Also called EPA. See also course of action; evader; evasion.

event matrix — A cross-referenced description of the indicators and activity expected to occur in each named area of interest. See also activity; area of interest; indicator. 

event template — A guide for collection planning that depicts the named areas of interest where activity, or its lack of activity, will indicate which course of action the adversary has adopted. See also activity; area of interest; collection planning; course of action.

exclusion zone — A zone established by a sanctioning body to prohibit specific activities in a specific geographic area to persuade nations or groups to modify their behavior to meet the desires of the sanctioning body or face continued imposition of sanctions, or use or threat of force.

exclusive economic zone — A maritime zone adjacent to the territorial sea that may not extend beyond 200 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured. Also called EEZ.

execute order — 1. An order issued by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, at the direction of the Secretary of Defense, to implement a decision by the President to initiate military operations. 2. An order to initiate military operations as directed. Also called EXORD.

executive agent — A term used to indicate a delegation of authority by the Secretary of Defense or Deputy Secretary of Defense to a subordinate to act on behalf of the Secretary of Defense. Also called EA.

exercise — A military maneuver or simulated wartime operation involving planning, preparation, and execution that is carried out for the purpose of training and evaluation. See also maneuver.

exfiltration The removal of personnel or units from areas under enemy control by stealth, deception, surprise, or clandestine means. See also special operations; unconventional warfare.

expeditionary force — An armed force organized to achieve a specific objective in a foreign country.

expendable supplies — Supplies that are consumed in use, such as ammunition, paint, fuel, cleaning and preserving materials, surgical dressings, drugs, medicines, etc., or that lose their identity, such as spare parts, etc., and may be dropped from stock record accounts when it is issued or used.

exploitation — 1. Taking full advantage of success in military operations, following up initial gains, and making permanent the temporary effects already created. 2. Taking full advantage of any information that has come to hand for tactical, operational, or strategic purposes. 3. An offensive operation that usually follows a successful attack and is designed to disorganize the enemy in depth. See also attack.

explosive cargo — Cargo such as artillery ammunition, bombs, depth charges, demolition material, rockets, and missiles.

explosive hazard — 1. Any material posing a potential threat that contains an explosive component such as unexploded explosive ordnance, booby traps, improvised explosive devices, captured enemy ammunition, and bulk explosives. 2. In explosive ordnance disposal, a condition where danger exists because explosives are present that may react in a mishap with potential unacceptable effects to people, property, operational capability, or the environment. Also called EH.

explosive ordnance — All munitions and improvised or clandestine explosive devices, containing explosives, propellants, nuclear fission or fusion materials, and biological and chemical agents.

explosive ordnance disposal — 1. The detection, identification, on-site evaluation, rendering safe, recovery, and final disposal of unexploded explosive ordnance. 2. The organizations engaged in such activities. Also called EOD.

explosive ordnance disposal incident — The suspected or detected presence of unexploded or damaged explosive ordnance that constitutes a hazard to operations, installations, personnel, or material and requires explosive ordnance disposal procedures.

explosive ordnance disposal procedures — Any particular course or mode of action taken by qualified explosive ordnance disposal personnel to detect and/or locate, access, identify, triage, diagnose, stabilize, render safe or neutralize, recover, exploit, and dispose of ordnance, explosives, or any hazardous material associated with an explosive ordnance disposal incident.

explosive ordnance disposal unit — Personnel with special training and equipment who render explosive ordnance safe, make intelligence reports on such ordnance, and supervise the safe removal thereof.

explosives safety munitions risk management — A systematic approach that integrates risk analysis into operational planning, military training exercises, and contingency operations with the goal of identifying potentially adverse consequences associated with munitions operations, risk reduction alternatives, and risk acceptance criteria for senior officials to make the risk decision. Also called ESMRM.

external audience In public affairs, all people who are not United States military members, Department of Defense civilian employees, and their immediate families. See also internal audience; public.

external support contract — Contract awarded by contracting organizations whose contracting authority does not derive directly from the theater support contracting head(s) of contracting activity or from systems support contracting authorities. See also systems support contract; theater support contract.

Military Dictionary A to Z


See also Official DOD Shortened Word Forms.

Source: Official DOD Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms.